General Rules of the game:

Football or soccer is a team sport played between two teams. Each team consists of eleven players with a circular ball. The game is played by 250 million official players in over 200 countries and territories, making it the world's most popular sport. 
The field is rectangular shaped with a goal at each end. The point of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line of the other team.
Players can’t touch the ball with hands or arms while in play, unless they are goalkeepers and only in their penalty area. Other players use their feet to shoot or pass the ball, but are allowed to use other part of their body except the hands and the arms. The team with the most goals wins. If the score is equal at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the type of the tournament.
The rules or Laws of the Game (LOTG) are 17 rules that the federation has declared. In short the laws are as follows:
1: The Field of Play
A football pitch or soccer field is the playing surface for the game. The surface can be either natural or artificial, but FIFA's Laws of the Game specify that all artificial surfaces must be painted in green. 
2: The Ball
Today's footballs are more complicated than past balls. Most modern footballs have twelve regular pentagonal and twenty regular hexagonal panels. 
3: The Players
Each team has a maximum of eleven players, one of whom is the goalkeeper. 
4: The Players' Equipment
Kit, strip or uniform is the standard outfit worn by players. Some competitions may add restrictions, like regulating the size of logos on shirts.
5: The Referee
The referee is responsible for enforcing the Laws of the Game during the game. He or she is the final decision-making authority on all facts connected with play, and is the only official on the field with the power to start and stop play and impose punitive action against players during a match. 
6: The Other Match Officials
An assistant referee or a linesman or lineswoman is an official responsible for judging when the ball has crossed the line play such as which team is allowed to return the ball to the game, judging when an offside has happened, and advising the main referee when an violation of the Laws have happened.
7: The Duration of the Match
A standard football game has two halves of 45 minutes each. Each half runs continuously, which means that the clock is not stopped when the ball is out of play for injury or other reasons. There is a 15-minute half-time break between the two halves. The end of the match is the full-time.
8: The start and restart of play
This is about the start and the restart of the game with the kick-off and ball being dropped. Other methods of restarting play are explained in other laws.
9: Ball in and out of play
The ball stays in the game from the beginning of each half to the end of that half, except when the ball leaves the field by crossing a goal line or touch line or when the game is stopped by the referee for a fowl or otherwise.
10: The Method of Scoring
A goal is scored when the ball passes completely over a goal line. Nets are usually attached to the goal frame to catch goal scoring balls.
11: Offside
A player is in an offside position if any of their body parts except hands and arms is in the opponents' half of the pitch and closer to the opponents' goal line than both the ball and the second-last opponent.
12: Fouls and Misconduct
A foul is an act by a player that the referee thinks is unfair. It is when it breaks the game's laws or interferes with the active play of the game. The team that has a foul against them are awarded of a free kick (possibly a penalty kick). 
Misconduct is when a referee disciplines a player (caution or dismissal). Misconduct may happen at any time, including when the ball is out of play, during half-time and before and after the game. This is incidents like attacking the referee or making racial or otherwise inappropriate actions. This will make the player either receives a caution (a yellow card) or a dismissal from the field (a red card).
13: Free kicks (direct and indirect)
A direct free kick is given by a referee when a player commits a foul outside their own team’s penalty area (for offside, etc., an indirect free kick is awarded). If the fault was committed by the defending team within their penalty area, the kick becomes a penalty kick.
14: The Penalty Kick
A penalty kick is when a player is allowed to take a shot on the goal while it is defended only by the other team’s goalkeeper. It is awarded when a foul happens and the referee decides that it is punishable by a direct free kick. The shot is taken from the penalty mark at 12 yards (11 m) from the goal line and centred between the touch lines.
15: The Throw-in
The throw-in is done from the point where the ball crossed the touch-line. This position is not exact and the referee allows small discrepancies. The throw-in is taken by the other team, of the player who last touched the ball before it crossed the touch-line.
16: The Goal Kick
A goal kick is given to the defending team when the ball goes out of the field of play by crossing, the goal line, without a goal being scored. This only happens when the last person to touch the ball was from the attacking team. If the last person to touch the ball was a member of the defending side, a corner kick is instead awarded to the attackers.
17: The Corner Kick
When the ball goes out over the goal line, without a goal being scored, and having last been touched by a member of the defending team, a kick is taken from the corner of the field of play nearest to where it went out.
Bet types
90 Minutes Game Time
All match markets are based on the result at the end of a scheduled 90 minutes play unless otherwise stated. 
Bets on Extra-Time In-Play Markets
First/Last Player to Score
Next Goal scorer
Player to Score at Any Time
Time of the First Goal
Injury Time
Time of First Corner
Handicap Betting
Half-Time Result
Double Chance
Asian Handicap
Goals Odd/Even
Both Teams to Score
Both Teams to Score in 1st and/or 2nd Half
Goals Over/Under
Next Goal Method
Team to Score First/Second/Next Goal
Own goals count to the side credited with the goal.
Team to Score Last
Bets will be void if the match is abandoned.
Total Penalties (Over/Under)
There may be more bet types added for games.